HPV and Cancer
HPV and Cancer: HPV16, 18, 31-33, 35, 39, 42, and 51-54 are considered high-risk types and have been linked to cancers of cervix, vulva, penis, and anus. Female partners of male patients with condylomata have increased risk of HPV infection and intraepithelial neoplasia. HPV has been detected in virtually 100% of cervical cancers and 84% of anal cancers worldwide, most commonly HPV16 and 18. HPV infection can progress rapidly in HIV-infected women; therefore, cervical cancer is considered one of the AIDS-defining illnesses. HPV has also been linked to cases of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity. DNA sequences of HPV-16 have been found in almost 50% of penile squamous cell carcinomas. Given the close association with HPV, the recent classification of penile squamous cell carcinoma uses HPV-based nomenclature. Both invasive squamous cell carcinomas and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) are subdivided into HPV and non-HPV associated groups. The HPV group of PeIN includes basaloid (undifferentiated) PeIN, warty (Bowenoid) PeIN, and warty-basaloid PeIN. The HPV-associated invasive cancers include basaloid squamous carcinoma and warty carcinoma. This circumcision specimen shows a large, cauliflower-like condyloma of foreskin.