Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines: Two virus-like particle vaccines are available for the prevention of HPV-associated conditions.Gardasil9 (Merck and Co.) is a 9-valent vaccine against HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and types 6 and 11. It is indicated for use between the ages of 9 and 45 for the prevention of precancerous/dysplastic lesions as well as cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, oropharyngeal and other head and neck cancers caused by high-risk HPV, as well as genital warts caused by HPV 6 and 11. Gardasil9 replaces Gardasil which is a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline) is a bivalent vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 and is approved for use in females for the prevention of cervical cancer and associated precancerous conditions. GlaxoSmithKline withdrew Cervarix from the US market in 2016 due to low demand. Both vaccines are most effective when administered before sexual contact. Widespread use of HPV vaccine (against types 6, 11, 16, and 18) has significantly reduced the incidence of genital warts, intraepithelial neoplasia, and cervical and vulvar carcinomas. The image shows a giant scrotal condyloma.